Film-Noir is a genre of the 1940-1950 movies of the USA, with a crime story, describing the gloomy atmosphere of mistrust and frustration, cynical fatalism and pessimism, typical of the Second World War and during the first years of the Cold War. The term (film noir - 'black film') was introduced in 1946 by French critics.
Features: erasing the border between the hero and the antihero, more or less relative realism of actions and dark lighting of the scenes, mostly night. Female individuals, in most cases, are shown as lying, they can not be trusted. Although they motivate the actions of the main characters of the male sex. The classic noir movie is in the films Maltese Falcon (1941) and The Seal of Evil (1958).
Famous directors: John Huston, Raul Walsh, Robert Sjodmak, Fritz Lang, Otto Preminger. Contributions were also made by Stanley Kubrick, Billy Wilder, Alfred Hitchcock, Nicholas Ray. Detectives and villains in the movies of this direction were Dana Andrews, Humphrey Bogart, Orson Wells, Burt Lancaster. Almost all the Hollywood movie stars of that era - Joan Crawford, Rita Hayworth, Barbara Stanwyck, Lauren Bacall, Gene Tierney - played 'femme fatale' in noir movies.
Scenarios were based on the American school hard-boiled fiction ('steep detective'). Many cinematographic techniques are borrowed from German expressionism - German cinema before the war. The influence on the development of noir movies was also the poetic realism of the French of the late 1930s (Pepe le Moco). In addition, the cinema noir was shot in France, Britain, Japan.